Definition of Terms

Ablation

A self regulation heat and mass transfer process in which incident thermal energy is expended by sacrificial loss of material. (ASTM)

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ABS Pipe

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene pipe – a plastic pipe used for water distribution, drain, waste, vent and sewage.

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Adhesive Failure

Failure of the bond between the sealant, adhesive, or coating and substrate surface.

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Annulus or Annuli

The gap between the penetrating item and the outside edge of the hole.

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ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials; an independent consensus standards generating group composed of volunteers.

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Backer Rod

A cylindrical polyurethane or polyethylene foam material used to provide support and set the proper depth of material for gunned or troweled in place sealant.

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Backing Material

Combustible or noncombustible material used to provide support for gunned or troweled in place sealant.

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Cable Tray

An opened or closed steel ladder which may be used to support multiple cables in power plants and commercial buildings.

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Char, (noun)

A grayish black, crusty material formed by burning organic type sealants.

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Classification

A series of procedures, usually administered by an independent testing laboratory, by which the consumer is protected and assured that the product which was tested is the same as the product purchased.

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Closed System

A piping system which is sealed, typically carrying fluids under pressure, such as hot and cold water distribution. The exact definition on a closed pipe system is determined by the local authority having jurisdiction. For instance, electrical conduit in a vertical orientation through a roof installation may be considered a vented system and the same conduit in a horizontal orientation or penetrating through a floor may be considered closed.

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CMU

Concrete Masonry Unit, such as concrete block. Usually hollow.

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Cohesion

The molecular attraction that holds the body of a sealant or adhesive together. The internal strength of an adhesive or sealant.

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Cohesive Failure

Failure characterized by rupture within the sealant, adhesive, or coating.

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Collar

A galvanized sheet metal restricting device used in conjunction with plastic pipe. Its function is to direct and control the intumescent action of the firestopping material.

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Compatibility

The capability of two or more materials to be placed in contact or close proximity with one another and each material maintaining its usual physical or chemical properties, or both.

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Concentric

Having a common center; penetration material centered in the middle of a through-penetration opening.

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Control Joint

A formed, sawed, tooled, or assembled joint acting to regulate the location and degree of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different elements of a structure.

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CPVC Pipe

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride pipe – a higher type grade of plastic pipe commonly used for hot/cold water distribution, sprinkler piping, and some chemicals. Suitable for high temperatures.

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Cure

In sealants, the process by which a compound attains its intended properties through evaporation, chemical reaction, heat, radiation, or combinations thereof.

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Deflection (slip) Track Wall Assembly

A specifically designed assembly at the top of non-load bearing gypsum walls. This assembly usually consists of “nested” stud and track members as a seismic feature which both architects and state officials (California) believe provides protection to interior non-load bearing walls.

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Detail

Technical drawing, complete with instructions on how to install a system.

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DWV Pipe

Non-pressure (vented) piping used for Drain, Waste or Vent.

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Eccentric

Off center; annulus will vary in through-penetration opening; penetration materials will not be in the center of the opening.

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Elasticity

The ability of a material to return to its original shape after removal of a load.

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Elastomer

A macromolecular material that returns rapidly to approximately the initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress.

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Elastomeric

Having the characteristics of an elastomer.

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Elongation

Extension produced by a tensile stress.

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EMT

Electrical Metal Tubing; a thin wall galvanized steel pipe used to carry electrical or other types of conductors.

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Endothermic

A process or change that takes place with absorption of heat and requires high temperature for initiation and maintenance.

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Expansion Joint

A structural separation between building elements that allows independent movement without damage to the assembly.

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F Rating

A firestop shall be considered as meeting the requirements for an F rating when it remains in the opening during the fire test and hose stream test within the following limitations: The firestop shall have withstood the fire test for the rating period without permitting the passage of flame through openings, or the occurrence of flaming on any element of the unexposed side of the firestop. During the hose stream test, the firestop shall not develop any opening that would permit a projection of water from the stream beyond the unexposed side. (ASTM E 814)

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Fire Endurance

A measure of the elapsed time during which a material or assembly continues to exhibit fire resistance under specified conditions of test and performance. As applied to elements of buildings, it shall be measured by the methods and the criteria defined in ASTM E 119 Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASTM E 152 Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, or ASTM E 163 Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. (ASTM)

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Fireproof, (adjective)

An inappropriate and misleading term, not to be used. (ASTM)

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Fire Rated or Fire Resistance

A system which has been tested in accordance with the appropriate ASTM test standard and has met the mechanical and endurance requirements of that standard. The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it. As applied to elements of buildings, it is characterized by the ability to confine a fire or to continue to perform a given structural function, or both. Such testing is conducted by a nationally recognized laboratory which rates the system for 1, 2, 3 or 4 hours, based on the results of the fire test.

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Fire Resistance Classification

A standard rating of fire-resistance and protective characteristics of a building construction or assembly. (ASTM E 119)

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Firestop

A through-penetration firestop is a specific construction consisting of all materials that fill the opening around penetrating items such as cables, cable trays, conduits, ducts, and pipes and their means of support through the wall or floor to prevent spread of fire. (ASTM)

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Fire Test Standard

Fire test standards are procedures intended to measure and describe the response of materials, products, and systems to sources of heat or flame under controlled conditions. These tests are intended to provide information useful for such purposes as product development, quality control, and specification description. They are not intended to be used alone to provide a measure of the fire hazard of materials, products, or systems. One or more fire test standards, however, may be used as part of a fire hazard standard. Fire test standards are separate and distinct from fire hazard standards, which are used to describe, measure, assess, or control the behavior of materials, products, and systems in the relevant environment. (ASTM)

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Intumesce

To swell, enlarge, inflate or expand, as with heat; Biostop(R) series of firestopping sealants swell to close gaps or voids in through-penetration openings when exposed to high heat conditions.

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Joint/Gap

The space or opening between two or more adjoining surfaces.

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L Rating

Air leakage test rating. As defined in the UL “Fire Resistance Directory”:”The L rating criteria determines the amount of air leakage, in cubic feet per minute per square foot of opening (CFM/sq ft), through the firestop system at ambient and/or 400°F air temperatures at an air pressure differential of 0.30 in. W.C. The L ratings are intended to assist authorities having jurisdiction, and others, in determining the suitability of firestop systems for the protection on penetrations and miscellaneous openings in floors and smoke barriers for the purpose of restricting the movement of smoke in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code, NFPA 101.

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Mineral Fiber

A noncombustible insulation material made from mineral fibers. It is also known as mineral wool or safing material. It is typically used as a backing and filler material in through-penetrations.

Modulus

The ratio of stress to strain. Also the tensile strength at a given elongation.

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MSDS

Material Safety Data Sheet. A regulatory document describing the health and safety aspects of a material as it pertains to its properties, health effects, hazards, handling, and disposal.

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Nominal Diameter

Commonly referenced in pipe and tubing sizes; may refer to the inside diameter, the median diameter or the outside diameter of the through-penetration pipe.

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Non-Sag Sealant

A compound that exhibits little or no flow when applied in vertical or inverted joints.

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Open System

An open system or sometimes referred to as a vented system is a piping system which allows air flow to the exterior of the building to prevent back flow or vacuum, i.e.: DWV pipe system (Drain, Waste or Vent). The exact definition on a open piping system is determined by the local authority having jurisdiction. For instance, electrical conduit in a vertical orientation through a roof installation may be considered a vented system and the same conduit in a horizontal orientation or penetrating through a floor may be considered closed.

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PB Pipe

Polybutylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is typically used for cold and hot water distribution. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.

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PE Pipe

Polyethylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is typically used for gas distribution. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.

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PP Pipe

Polypropylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is suitable for higher temperature applications and is typically used for hot and cold water distribution and some chemical services. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.

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PVC Pipe

Polyvinyl chloride pipe – a common plastic pipe used for cold water distribution in both pressure (closed) or vented (DWV) applications. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.

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Sealant

A material that has the adhesive and cohesive properties to form a seal.

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Sealant Backing

A compressible material placed in a joint before applying a sealant.

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Self-Leveling Sealant

A compound that exhibits flow sufficient to seek gravitational leveling.

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Shelf Life

The maximum time packaged materials can be stored under specified conditions and still meet the performance requirements specified.

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Shrinkage

A decrease in length, area, or volume.

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Standard Temperature /Time Curve

A graphical representation derived from prescribed time-temperature relationships and used to control burn test furnace temperatures with progressing time. (ASTM)

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Steel Sleeve

A form used when pouring concrete to provide space for a penetrating item. Also may be used inside hollow construction walls to prevent firestopping materials from entering wall cavities unnecessarily.

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Structural Sealant

A sealant capable of transferring dynamic or static (“live” or “dead”, or both) loads, or both, across joint members exposed to service environments typical for the structure involved.

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Substrate

A material upon which films, treatments, adhesives, sealants, membranes, and coatings are applied.

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System Number

A number assigned to a specific detail or series of similar details which are then indexed in numerical order in a reference book or directory.

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Tensile Strength

Resistance of a material to a tensile force (stretch). The cohesive strength of a material expressed in psi.

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Tooling

The act of compacting and contouring a sealant in a joint.

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Tooling Time

The time interval after application of a one-component sealant or after mixing and application of multi-component sealant during which tooling is possible.

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Top of Wall

The joint/gap located above a non-load bearing wall and below the ceiling, deck, or floor.

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T Rating

A firestop shall be considered as meeting the requirements for a T rating when it remains in the opening during the fire test and hose stream test within the following limitations: The transmission of heat through the firestop during the rating period shall not have been such as to raise the temperature of any thermocouple on the unexposed surface of the firestop or on any penetrating item more than 325 ° F above its initial temperature. Also, the firestop shall have withstood the fire test for the rating period without permitting the passage of flame through openings, or the occurrence of flaming on any element of the unexposed side of the firestop. During the hose stream test, the firestop shall not develop any opening that would permit a projection of water from the stream beyond the unexposed side. (ASTM E 814)

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Through Penetration

Consists of three items: 1) wall or floor construction 2) penetrating item or absence thereof 3) the hole or void.

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UL

Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated; an independent testing laboratory.

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Ultimate Elongation

Elongation at failure.

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WHI

Warnock Hersey International, Incorporated; and independent testing laboratory.

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Wire Mesh

Galvanized steel hardware cloth used to support backing material in gypsum wallboard and hollow concrete block construction.

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Working (“pot”) Life

The time interval after opening a container of a single component sealant, or after mixing the components of a multi-component sealant, during which application and tooling is possible.

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